Cancer Types

Explore and learn more about specific types of cancer here.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.

Each breast also has blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels lead to organs called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body. They filter substances in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.
The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. Cancer that begins in the lobes or lobules is called lobular carcinoma and is more often found in both breasts than are other types of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon type of breast cancer in which the breast is warm, red, and swollen.

Age and health history can affect the risk of developing breast cancer.
Breast cancer is sometimes caused by inherited gene mutations (changes). The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a person’s parents. Hereditary breast cancer makes up approximately 5% to 10% of all breast cancer. Some altered genes related to breast cancer are more common in certain ethnic groups.

Lung Cancer

Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. Lung cancer cells can spread from the lung to almost any other part of the body, such as the brain, bones, other lung, liver, or adrenal glands. Smoking is a major contributor to causing lung cancer.
Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world.

Cervical Cancer

When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervix connects the vagina (birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
All women are at risk for cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women over age 30.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. At least half of sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives, but few women will get cervical cancer.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.
Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. The prostate is a walnut-sized organ located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in men. It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen.
Last year, prostate cancer was found to be the fourth most common form of cancer in Qatar.

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a general term for cancers that start in the lymph system, mainly the lymph nodes. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma spreads in an orderly manner from one group of lymph nodes to another. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma spreads through the lymphatic system in a non-orderly manner. The causes of lymphoma are unknown.

Leukemia

Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood. In a person with leukemia, the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells.

Unlike normal blood cells, leukemia cells don’t die when they should. They may crowd out normal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This makes it hard for normal blood cells to do their work. The two main types of leukemia are lymphocytic leukemia, which involves an increase of white blood cells called lymphocytes; and myelogenous leukemia (also known as myeloid or myelocytic leukemia), which involves an increase in white blood cells called granulocytes.
Leukemia can be acute or chronic. Acute forms of leukemia progress rapidly, while chronic forms of leukemia progress slowly.
Among children and teens less than 20 years old, leukemia is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death.

Colon

Colon cancer is created from uncontrolled cell growth in the colon, rectum, or in the appendix; the lower part of your digestive system. Since rectal cancer is the cancer of the last several inches of the colon, colon cancer is also known as Colorectal cancer.

The cancer forms in the tissues of the largest parts of the intestine, and tend to make and release mucus and other fluids. It tends to begin as small noncancerous clumps of cells (called adenomatous polyps). Without screening, some of these polyps become colon cancers over time.

Colon cancer can be prevented.
Colon cancer affects both men and women of all races, and tends to be more common amongst ages 50 and above. If screened early enough, over half of the cases of death stemmed from colon cancer could have been prevented.

Thyroid

Thyroid Cancer is the fastest increasing cancer in both men and women. It is located in the thyroid region of the neck and is the most common endocrine cancer. It can be treated with radioactive iodine or surgical resection of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid cancer can occur in all age groups, and can be sourced to family history or increased radiation exposure.

There are several types of thyroid cancer:

  • Anaplastic carcinoma (also called giant and spindle cell cancer) is the most dangerous form of thyroid cancer. It is rare, and spreads quickly and aggressively. This accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid cancer.
  • Medullary carcinoma is a cancer of non-thyroid cells that are normally present in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur in families and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. This type is easier to treat if found early.
  • Papillary carcinoma is the most common type, and it usually affects women of childbearing age. It spreads slowly and is the least dangerous type of thyroid cancer. This type of cancer accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Follicular carcinoma is more likely to come back and spread.

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